Biobanking is the collection of body fluid or tissue samples for research purposes in order to advance our understanding of health and diseases. A biobank is a form of biorepository that holds biological samples (mostly human) for research purposes. Biobanks have become a valuable resource in medical research, enabling several types of cutting-edge studies such as genomics and customised therapy. Researchers can use biobanks to gain access to data from a large number of people. Multiple researchers can commonly use samples in biobanks and the data obtained from those samples for cross-purpose research investigations.
A large subgroup of medical indicators – that is, objective signals of medical state viewed from outside the patient – that can be assessed correctly and reproducibly is referred to as a "biomarker," a portmanteau of "biological marker." Medical signals are distinct from medical symptoms, which are limited to the signs of health or illness that patients perceive. Biomarkers are useful for revealing connections between environmental exposures, human biology, and disease. Biomarkers can help scientists better understand basic biological processes, develop exposure science, and translate research findings into medicinal and public health applications.