Plants are the only eukaryotes that can make their own food. Eukaryotes are organisms with membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles. Plant cells are eukaryotic, which means they have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles, just like animal cells. The study of all elements of plant cells is known as plant cell biology. It is particularly interested in plant cell structure, growth, division, signalling, differentiation, and death.
Algae are members of the kingdom Protista, which consists primarily of aquatic photosynthetic creatures. Algae come in a variety of sizes, from microscopic Micromonas species to huge kelps that can exceed 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Over the last few decades, molecular research on algae has yielded important insights into universal biological principles. This knowledge is crucial in the field of biotechnology, which is now researching novel uses in food cultivation, biofuels, and pharmaceuticals.
Fungi and other eukaryotes share the majority of their cell structure and function. The distinctive chemical composition of the fungal cell wall and plasma membrane, as well as the peculiar mechanisms of hyphal development in filamentous fungi and budding in yeasts, are all cell biology differences. Filamentous fungus produce multicellular colonies, or mycelia, by extending and branching cells called hyphae repeatedly.