In vivo and in vitro, stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into adult somatic cell types. Many biopharmaceutical applications can benefit from the unique features of stem cells. From target identification to toxicological investigations, stem cells can be used at every stage of the drug development process. The ‘stem cell' is expected to lead a transformation in how cell-based assays are used to improve the level of success in the discovery of new ‘cellular' and molecular drugs to address unmet medical needs, according to global drug discovery partners including academia, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical industries. Due to the enormous number of variables to consider, such as which growth factors or small molecules to add, when, which cell substrate to utilise, and the appropriate 3D structure of the cells, developing and optimising stem cell differentiation techniques is extremely demanding.