The interaction between a cell and its environment lies at the centre of mechanobiology. Cells are dependent on dynamic subcellular systems that can generate and transduce mechanical force to perceive and respond to the physical features of their surroundings. The integration of these signals into biochemical and genetic pathways downstream has observable and quantitative consequences on cell survival. Mechanobiology research aims to understand how physical forces and changes in cell mechanics and their surroundings drive cell signalling and responses.
Synthetic biology is a new interdisciplinary field in which engineering principles are applied to biology. Its goal is to (re-)design and fabricates biological components and systems that do not currently exist in nature. Synthetic biology blends chemical DNA synthesis with expanding genomics knowledge to enable researchers to rapidly produce catalogued DNA sequences and assemble them into new genomes.
An organelle is a subcellular structure that, like an organ in the body, has one or more different responsibilities to do in the cell. The nuclei, which store genetic information, mitochondria, which provide chemical energy, and ribosomes, which assemble proteins, are among the most significant cell organelles.